The exact cause of a person's TMJ disorder is often difficult to determine. Your pain may be due to a combination of factors, such as genetics, arthritis or jaw injury. Some people who have jaw pain also tend to clench or grind their teeth (bruxism), although many people habitually clench or grind their teeth and never develop TMJ disorders.
In most cases, the pain and discomfort associated with TMJ disorders is temporary and can be relieved with self-managed care or nonsurgical treatments. Surgery is typically a last resort after conservative measures have failed, but some people with TMJ disorders may benefit from surgical treatments.
Signs and symptoms of TMJ disorders may include:
Pain or tenderness of your jaw
Pain in one or both of the temporomandibular joints
Aching pain in and around your ear
Difficulty chewing or pain while chewing
Aching facial pain
Locking of the joint, making it difficult to open or close your mouth
TMJ disorders can also cause a clicking sound or grating sensation when you open your mouth or chew. But if there's no pain or limitation of movement associated with your jaw clicking, you probably don't need treatment for a TMJ disorder.
When to see a doctor
Seek medical attention if you have persistent pain or tenderness in your jaw, or if you can't open or close your jaw completely. Your doctor, your dentist or a TMJ specialist can discuss possible causes and treatments for your problem.
The temporomandibular joint combines a hinge action with sliding motions. The parts of the bones that interact in the joint are covered with cartilage and are separated by a small shock-absorbing disk, which normally keeps the movement smooth.
Painful TMJ disorders can occur if:
The disk erodes or moves out of its proper alignment
The joint's cartilage is damaged by arthritis
The joint is damaged by a blow or other impact
In many cases, however, the cause of TMJ disorders isn't clear.
Factors that may increase the risk of developing TMJ disorders include:
Various types of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
Long-term (chronic) grinding or clenching of teeth
Certain connective tissue diseases that cause problems that may affect the temporomandibular joint